Printmaking workshop founded in Paris in 1927, active in New York between 1940 and 1955. Under British abstract surrealist Stanley William Hayter, its founder and guiding spirit, it spurred a print revival based on modern adaptations of traditional intaglio printmaking. Originally identified with European forms of abstraction and surrealism, in New York it served as an important point of contact between European wartime émigrés and experimental American artists, most notably nascent abstract expressionists. Deriving its name from its street address in Paris, the workshop promoted Hayter's high standards of technical excellence but also encouraged innovation. Hayter had closed the Paris operation in 1939 and returned to England. He arrived in New York the following year and lived there until 1950, when he reopened the Paris branch. His wife, California-born abstract sculptor and printmaker Helen Phillips (1913–95), whom he had met in Paris and married in 1940, returned with him to Paris. After they divorced in 1970, she worked mainly in Paris but later also established a residence in New York, where she died. The New York workshop at first was associated with the New School for Social Research (now New School) but moved into its own quarters in 1945. Karl Schrag ran Atelier 17 after Hayter left New York. Other participants included major postwar artists, such as Jackson Pollock, Robert Motherwell, and Louise Nevelson. As well, the atelier nurtured leading print specialists, including Mauricio Lasansky and Gabor Peterdi.