Scottish earl who played a leading if inconsistent role in the Wars of Independence. He was captured at Dunbar (1296) and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Reconciled with Edward I, he became warden of northern Scotland in 1304. He reverted to the Scottish allegiance, attended the coronation of Robert Bruce, his brother‐in‐law, in 1306, and was retaken by the English three months later. Hanged in London, then decapitated and burned, he was the first earl to be executed in England since 1076.
Subjects: British History.