king of Pergamum (158–138), second son of Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother Eumenes II as loyal general against Antiochus III the Great, the Galatians, Prusias I of Bithynia, and Pharnaces I of Pontus, and as diplomat, especially in Rome, where after 167 some senators favoured him against Eumenes. As king—he bore the title already in Eumenes' lifetime—he married Eumenes' widow Stratonice and adopted her son Attalus. He recognized Roman paramountcy and acted accordingly: he restored Ariarathes V to Cappadocia, supported Alexander Balas against Demetrius I in Syria (153–150), Nicomedes II of Bithynia against Prusias II (149), whom with Roman help he had recently defeated, and sent troops against Andriscus (148) and to Corinth (146). He founded Philadelphia in Lydia and Attaleia (Antalya) in Pamphylia, continued Eumenes' building programme at Pergamum and the tradition of magnificent gifts to Greek cities and shrines (e.g. the ‘Stoa of Attalus’ at Athens).
R. M. Errington
Subjects: Classical Studies.