(b Berlin, 29 Apr. 1931).
German-born painter and printmaker who was sent to England in 1939 as a refugee from Nazism (his parents died in the Holocaust) and became a British citizen in 1947. He studied under David Bomberg, whom he found an inspiring teacher. His work (characteristically nudes and townscapes) is in the Expressionist vein of Bomberg's late paintings and is remarkable for its use of extreme impasto, so thick that the paint at times seems modelled rather than brushed. He has a reputation as one of the leading British painters of his time, although some critics find his pictures muddy and overworked.