Bp. of Strängnäs from 1933 to 1952. He was one of the leaders of the Motivsforschung school, which sought to see the essential truth behind a doctrine rather than stress the form in which it was presented. In his work on the Atonement (1930; abridged Eng. tr., 1931) he defended a modified version of the ‘ransom to the devil’ theory. His later writings stressed the elements of coherence and continuity in doctrine, and the historical trustworthiness of the Gospel record.