Gold crowns were offered to rulers and conquerors in the ancient near east and in the Hellenistic world. Similar offerings were made from the early 2nd cent. bc to Roman generals and rapidly came to be exacted by them. A law of Caesar (59 bc) enacted that it should not be demanded until a triumph had been formally decreed. Under the empire, gold for crowns went to the emperor alone and was exacted with increasing frequency, not only for triumphs (Res Gestae 21) but on imperial accessions, anniversaries, adoptions, and so forth, and then became an irregular form of taxation on communities.
Subjects: Classical Studies.