became in 1883 joint editor with W. J. Courthope of the newly founded National Review, and sole editor for eight years from 1887. Between 1871 and 1908 he published twenty volumes of verse, of little merit. In 1896, to widespread mockery, Austin was made poet laureate, shortly afterwards publishing in The Times an unfortunate ode celebrating the Jameson Raid. Himself a waspish critic of his contemporaries, he was much derided and parodied as a poet. His Autobiography appeared in 1911.