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That by which the beliefs and practices of Judaism are sanctioned.

In traditional Jewish thought, the ultimate authority is the God-given Torah as interpreted by the Talmudic Rabbis., so that the Talmud, as the sole authentic interpreter of the biblical text, became, in one sense, more authoritative than the bare text itself. Reform Judaism in the early nineteenth century rejected the authority of the Talmud, but, especially after the Holocaust in the twentieth century, came to pay greater heed to Talmudic teachings and to Rabbinic law, at least where these are not seen as contrary to the modern spirit.

Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies.

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