Indian Islamic thinker. Received a traditional Islamic education and was considered a child prodigy. As a journalist in Calcutta, argued that Muslim nonviolent resistance against the British was a religious duty. Eventually joined forces with Gandhi. Was imprisoned by the British numerous times; spent one-seventh of his life in prison. Served as president of the All-India National Congress (1940). In 1947 joined the Indian government as minister of education and later as vice president.
See also Tarjuman al-Quran