G. Myrdal (1970) states that a ‘growing point’ established by the location of a factory, or any other expansional move, will attract other businesses, skilled labour, and capital. However, it will also have backwash effects that keep down, or even impoverish, out-regions; see Allen et al. (2005) Asia Pac. Viewpt 46, 2. Barkley et al. (1995) Papers Reg. Sci. 74 identify different types of spread-backwash processes—but Malecki (2003) AAAG93, 4 writes that ‘old ideas, such as cumulative causation and spread and backwash, are translated into the disequilibrium of growth poles and into evolutionary economics and the new economic geography’.
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.