The heart of the province originally (197 bc) called Further Spain, comprising a range of sophisticated and urbanized peoples formerly controlled by Carthage. As Roman territory increased, an administrative division, beginning south of Carthago Nova, between Nearer and Further Spain was formed. In 27 bc the old settled province east and south of the Anas was assigned to the senate as Hispania Baetica. It was divided for judicial purposes into four conventūs centred at Gades, Corduba (the capital), Astigi, and Hispalis. Moreover, Caesar and Augustus created many colonies in this heavily urbanized province, while their grants of municipal status (see municipium) to native communities were greatly extended by Vespasian. Baetica was one of the richest provinces in the Roman west, exporting metals (see gold), olive oil, and fish‐pickle (see fishing; food and drink) to Rome and the northern frontiers.
Subjects: Classical Studies.