Sufi teacher of the Khalwati order. Had through his students, particularly Muhammad al-Hifni and Muhammad al-Sammani, a significant impact on movements of Islamic renewal, especially in Africa. Born in Damascus and spent much time in Jerusalem and Cairo. Wrote a widely used prayer manual, poetry, mystical treatises, and accounts of spiritual travel. His reorganization of the Khalwati tradition involved more effective coordination of the followers' activities and greater scope for participation by common people.