Special branch of the Khalwati Sufi order established in the mid-eighteenth century in Egypt by Mustafa ibn Kamal al-Din al-Bakri. Served as a parent organization to subgroups of activist, revivalist tariqahs (orders) throughout the Islamic world, since major disciples began their own orders after his death. Al-Bakri taught exclusive affiliation to tariqah, strict discipline in performance of litanies, greater participation of common people in tariqah rituals, and strict adherence to the Quran, Sunnah, and shariah. Leaders were heavily involved in hadith studies. The order split into different groups after al-Bakri's death. Some of his students became major hadith teachers in the latter part of the eighteenth century.