Ashari theologian and Maliki jurist of Iraq. Instrumental in propagation of Ashari kalam, though his own doctrinal contribution is difficult to distinguish. Debated at Buwayhid and Byzantine courts. Was appointed teacher of the Buwayhid ruler's son, Samsam al-Dawla. Supported the doctrine of the apologetic miracle being proof of prophecy, the noncreation of the Quran, intercession, and the possibility of seeing God. Wrote a major work on the superiority of the Quran to poetry, arguing that the doctrine of Quranic inimitability (ijaz) is part of its structural composition, not dependant on rhetorical figures.