Barons' war

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Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester (c. 1208—1265) magnate and political reformer

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Hay, William Montagu (1826 - 1911), DL, Hereditary Chamberlain of Dunfermline; Lord High Commissioner to General Assembly of Church of Scotland, 1889–92, 1896–97; [William de Haya was Butler to Malcolm IV and William the Lion; 1st Baron’s father was Ambassador to England from Robert III and the Regent, Duke of Albany; 2nd Baron fell at Flodden, 1513; 4th Baron was captured at Pinkie, 1547; 1st Earl of Tweeddale commanded a regiment for Charles I; 1st Marquis became Lord Chancellor of Scotland after the Revolution; 2nd Marquis likewise in 1704; 4th Marquis held the last appointment as Extraordinary Lord of Session; 8th Marquis served in the Peninsular War, was present at the battle of Vittoria (gold medal), and at Busaco, where he was wounded, 1810; became Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Madras]


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(1215–17; 1264–67)

Two civil wars fought in England between the King and the barons. The first began in June 1215 at Runnymede, King John, faced by the concerted opposition of the barons and Church, conceded Magna Carta. He failed to honour his promise and thereby provoked the barons to offer the crown to Louis, Dauphin of France, who landed in Kent in May 1216. John's death (October 1216) and the reissue of Magna Carta by the regent of his son Henry III prevented a major civil war. With his defeat at Lincoln and the capture of his supply ships off Sandwich, Louis accepted the Treaty of Kingston-upon-Thames in September 1217.

The second arose from baronial opposition to the incompetent Henry III and led to his accepting a programme of reform, the Provisions of Oxford (1258). Henry's renunciation of those reforms led to civil war in 1264, the baronial forces being led by Simon de Montfort. The king's capture at the Battle of Lewes (May 1264) began a brief period of baronial control when de Montfort sought to broaden his support by extending parliamentary franchise to the shires and towns (1265). After his defeat and death at Evesham (August 1265), the struggle was continued unsuccessfully until 1267 by his supporters.

Subjects: World History.

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