A painting of a battle or military scene. The great Renaissance battle pictures of Leonardo (Battle of Anghiari 1503–6) and Michelangelo (Battle of Cascina c.1506) are now lost but are known through copies and fragments. This tradition of the heroic battle scene displayed a considerable formal debt to scenes of battle as depicted on classical sarcophagi. The 17th century saw the development of specialist battle painters such as Jacques Courtois (‘Il Borgognone’), Aniello Falcone, and Philips Wouwerman. Battles were also portrayed in tapestries which, from the 17th century onwards, largely took over from fresco as the medium for official military art. In the 19th century there was a renewed enthusiasm for the genre both in Europe and America with the production of many large-scale canvases depicting the numerous battles of that era.