Mahmud Jelâl Bayar


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Young Turks

Kemal Atatürk (1881—1938) Turkish general and statesman, President 1923–38

Ottoman Empire


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(b. 16 May 1884, d. 21 Aug. 1986).

President of Turkey 1950–60 Born in Umurbey, he took up work in a bank and other employment. He joined the Young Turk movement in 1907, and in 1919 the resistance movement led by Kemal (Atatürk). He was a member of the last parliament of the Ottoman Empire, and joined the Turkish Grand National Assembly on its foundation in 1920. He became Minister of the Economy in 1921, and Minister of Reconstruction in 1924. Again Minister of the Economy (1932–7), his policies of promoting both private enterprise and developing important state industries contributed greatly to the success of the first five‐year plan of 1933. Together with Menderes he founded the Democratic Party in 1945 and, when it won the 1950 election, he became the country's first civilian President. Despite his office, which required him to remain neutral and above day‐to‐day political events, he was heavily partisan and supported his party particularly as its popularity faded. He was deposed in an army coup and sentenced to death for violation of the constitution. He escaped the fate of his colleague, Menderes, as his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. He was released from prison in 1964, and retired from politics.

Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).

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