French general. During the Franco-Prussian War he was appointed commander-in-chief, but was reluctant to give battle. He withdrew to Metz with 176,000 French troops and capitulated to Bismarck on 27 October 1870. Convicted of treason (1873), he was sentenced to death, but this was commuted to 20 years' imprisonment. After one year he escaped to Italy and then Spain, where he died.
Subjects: World History — Military History.