Leading Iranian Shii intellectual, cleric, and political organizer. Instrumental in the consolidation of clerical rule after the Islamic revolution in 1979. Head of the Revolutionary Council of Iran. Founder and secretary general of the Islamic Republican Party (IRP). Rejected efforts to reconcile liberal democracy, nationalism, and socialism with Islam, affirming a purely Islamic alternative represented by Khomeini's “rule of the jurist” instead. Killed in bombing of IRP headquarters.