Compare attitudinal effects; cognitive effects.
1. Any changes in the behaviour of individuals or groups attributed to specific causes.
2. In relation to the mass media, influences of the use of particular media (or particular kinds of media content) on the behaviour of users—one focus of academic media research within the effects tradition. Antisocial behaviour has been the focus for much of the research in this area: specifically the attempt to find evidence for causal connections between the viewing of violence in the mass media and increased aggression or violent behaviour. See violence debate.