American abstract sculptor. He was born in Chicago and studied at the Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 1957–9. In the early 1960s he turned from painting to making glass sculptures of refined simplicity, his work representing an extreme development of the tendency among certain young Californian artists of the time to dematerialize the art object and work with pure qualities of light. His virtually invisible glass panels (subtly coated to create varying degrees of opacity and reflection) were the most novel works shown at the exhibition ‘Spaces’ at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, in 1970. In 1972 he began to make outdoor sculptures of coated glass.