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; subclass Actinopterygii, order Perciformes)

A family of small, freshwater fish that have a protrusible upper jaw, vestigial lateral line, 10 or fewer soft rays in the dorsal fin, and often an elongate pelvic ray in the jugular pelvic fins. Labyrinth-like accessory respiratory organs can be found in the gill chambers. Prior to spawning, males often make a foamy bubble nest at the surface of the water. They are indigenous to Africa and southern Asia.

Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.

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