A structure associated with a layer of liquid that is confined by two horizontal parallel plates, in which the lateral dimensions are much larger than the width of the layer. Before heating the liquid is homogeneous. However, if after heating from below the temperatures of the plates are T1 and T2, at a critical value of the temperature gradient ΔT=T1 – T2 the liquid abruptly starts to convect. The liquid spontaneously organizes itself into a set of convection rolls, i.e. the liquid goes round in a series of ‘cells’, called Bénard cells.
Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.