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Were junior officers in the Roman army below the rank of centurion. They were appointed through the favour (beneficium) of their commander, and the title existed at least from the time of Caesar. In the imperial period a beneficiarius ranked among the principālēs, who received pay at one‐and‐a‐half times or twice normal legionary rates (see stipendium), and performed administrative duties. Normally a man was promoted beneficiarius after serving as an immūnis (a soldier on basic pay who performed a specialist function for which he received exemption from routine duties), and then holding one or more posts in the century (see centuria)—officer in charge of the watch, standard‐bearer, or orderly. The rank of each beneficiarius depended on the status of the official to whose office he was attached (these included senior military officers, procurators, provincial governors, the city prefect, the praetorian prefects), and he could often expect promotion to the centurionate.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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