Bergman first made her name on stage and screen in Sweden before embarking on an international career in Hollywood. Gustaf Molander's Intermezzo (1936), made in Sweden, was followed by David O. Selznick's 1939 American remake of the film with Leslie Howard (known in the UK as Escape to Happiness). After this success came such classics as Casablanca (1943) with Humphrey Bogart, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), and Gaslight (1944), for which she received her first Academy Award. Equally memorable were Hitchcock's Spellbound (1945), Notorious (1946), and Under Capricorn (1949. Then came the neorealist Stromboli (1950), directed without a script by Roberto Rossellini. She had by this time left her husband, Dr Peter Lindstrom, for Rossellini: the adverse publicity that surrounded the long affair led to her exile from Hollywood and a decline in her popularity. Among the other films she made with Rossellini were Europa '51 (1952) and Giovanna d'Arco al rogo (1954; Joan at the Stake). The affair became a marriage in 1950, although a Rome court refused to recognize either her divorce from Lindstrom or her marriage to Rossellini. This obstruction to wedlock, however, turned out to be irrelevant in 1958 when they separated; Bergman subsequently (1960) married Swedish theatre producer Lars Schmidt.
Shortly after making Jean Renoir's Eléna et les hommes (1956; Paris Does Strange Things), Bergman re-established her career in the USA with Anastasia (1956), for which she won her second Oscar. Notable among the films that followed were The Inn of the Sixth Happiness (1958), Murder on the Orient Express (1974) – her third Oscar-winning film – Ingmar Bergman's Autumn Sonata (1978), which brought an Oscar nomination, and, shortly before her death, the biographical TV film of Golda Meir. Throughout her career Bergman also had a number of major stage successes.
Subjects: Contemporary History (Post 1945).