The first standardized (2) intelligence test, constructed in 1905 by the French psychologists Alfred Binet (1857–1911) and Théodore Simon (1873–1961). It included items designed to measure ability to follow instructions, to exercise judgement, and to solve a wide variety of problems. The final version contained 54 items arranged in order of difficulty, from following the movement of a lighted match with the eyes, through pointing to named parts of the body and counting backwards from 20, to working out what time a clock face would show if the hour and minute hands swapped places. Also called the Binet scale, though this is unfair to Simon, who played a major part in its development. See also mental age, Stanford-Binet intelligence scale.