Algerian thinker and writer. Wrote over twenty books on Islamic, cultural, societal, and developmental issues. Produced all his books under the series title The Problems of Civilization, which he held central in understanding the Muslim peoples' current state of decline. Urged Muslims to reconstruct themselves individually, change their state of “colonizability,” and elevate themselves to higher standards of civilization. His ideas influenced segments of Algerian intellectuals, who later became active members of the contemporary Islamic movement.