The study of the chemistry of living organisms, especially the structure and function of their chemical components (principally proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Biochemistry has advanced rapidly with the development, from the mid-20th century, of such techniques as chromatography, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, radioisotopic labelling, and electron microscopy. Using these techniques to separate and analyse biologically important molecules, the steps of the metabolic pathways in which they are involved (e.g. glycolysis and the Krebs cycle) have been determined. This has provided some knowledge of how organisms obtain and store energy, how they manufacture and degrade their biomolecules, how they sense and respond to their environment, and how all this information is carried and expressed by their genetic material. Biochemistry forms an important part of many other disciplines, especially physiology, nutrition, molecular biology, and genetics, and its discoveries have made a profound impact in medicine, agriculture, industry, and many other areas of human activity.
http://www.biochemweb.org/ A virtual library of biochemistry, cell biology, and molecular biology
French chemist Anselme Payen (1795–1871) discovers diastase (the first enzyme to be discovered).
Theodor Schwann discovers the digestive enzyme pepsin.
Louis Pasteur demonstrates fermentation is caused by ‘ferments’ in yeasts and bacteria.
German biochemist Johann Friedrich Miescher (1844–95) discovers nucleic acid.
Pasteur's ‘ferments’ are designated as enzymes.
German chemist Emil Fischer (1852–1919) proposes the ‘lock-and-key’ mechanism to explain enzyme action.
Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine (1854–1922) isolates adrenaline (the first hormone to be isolated).
German biologist Eduard Buchner (1860–1917) discovers the enzyme zymase (causing fermentation).
British biologist Arthur Harden (1865–1940) discovers coenzymes.
Russian-born US biochemist Phoebus Levene (1869–1940) identifies ribose in RNA.
Canadian physiologist Frederick Banting (1891–1941) and US physiologist Charles Best (1899–1978) isolate insulin.
Alexander Fleming discovers the enzyme lysozyme.
Russian-born British biologist David Keilin (1887–1963) discovers cytochrome.
US biochemist James Sumner (1877–1955) crystallizes urease (the first enzyme to be isolated).
German chemist Hans Fischer (1881–1945) determines the structure of haem (in haemoglobin).
K. Lohman isolates ATP from muscle.
US biochemist John Northrop (1891–1987) isolates the enzyme pepsin.
Swedish biochemist Hugo Theorell (1903–82) isolates the muscle protein myoglobin.
Hans Krebs discovers the Krebs cycle.
German-born US biochemist Fritz Lipmann (1899–1986) proposes that ATP is the carrier of chemical energy in many cells.
US biochemist Britton Chance (1913– ) discovers how enzymes work (by forming an enzyme-substrate complex).
US biologist Alfred Hershey (1908– ) proves that DNA carries genetic information.
Francis Crick and James Watson discover the structure of DNA.
Frederick Sanger discovers the amino acid sequence of insulin.
US biochemist Arthur Kornberg (1918– ) discovers DNA polymerase.
US molecular biologist Paul Berg (1926– ) identifies the nucleic acid later known as transfer RNA.
British biologist Alick Isaacs (1921–67) discovers interferon.
Austrian-born British biochemist Max Perutz (1914– ) determines the structure of haemoglobin.
South African-born British molecular biologist Sydney Brenner (1927– ) and French biochemist François Jacob (1920– ) discover messenger RNA.
British biochemist Peter Mitchell (1920–92) proposes the chemiosmotic theory.
Subjects: Biological Sciences.