A war against the Sauk and Fox Native Americans. Between the Louisiana Purchase and the 1830s, there was steady pressure from White settlers to remove the remaining Native Americans east of the Mississippi to the new territory, and Native American land rights were eaten away by a series of enforced treaties. In 1831, the Sauk and Fox Native Americans, led by Chief Black Hawk, were forced by the local militia to retreat across the Mississippi into Missouri. In the following year, threatened by famine and hostile Sioux, the Sauk and Fox recrossed the river to plant corn. When they refused to comply with the local military commander's order to leave, a brief war broke out in which the starving Sauk and Fox were gradually driven back, before being trapped and massacred near the mouth of the Red Axe River in early August. Black Hawk's defeat and death allowed the final loss of Native American land rights east of the Mississippi in favour of the White settlers.
Subjects: Warfare and Defence — World History.