Prussian field-marshal, whose victories were due more to dash and energy than to military tactics. Forced to surrender to the French in 1806, he helped to re-create his country's opposition to Napoleon, and was commander-in-chief of the armies in their victory at Leipzig in 1813. The following year he led the invasion of France, gaining a major victory at Laon, which led to the overthrow of Napoleon. He retired to Silesia, only to be recalled when Napoleon returned. His intervention at a late stage of the battle of Waterloo was decisive.