A collection of 100 kōans first collected by Hsüeh-tou Ch'ung-hsien (980–1052) from previous Ch'an records. Hsüeh-tou added verses to each kōan. Later, Yüan-wu K'o-ch'in (1063–1135) added a preface, critique, and biographical note on major characters to each of the kōans, and the work assumed its final shape. Yüan-wu completed the work in 1125, but a few years later his disciple Ta-hui Tsung-kao (1089–1163) burnt it, citing the Ch'an school's independence of ‘words and letters’ as his reason. The book was not reprinted and circulated until the Ta-te period of the Yüan dynasty (1297–1307).