(b Vienna, 1877; d NY, 1939). Austrian conductor. Took various humble conducting posts from 1900. Ass. to Mahler at Vienna Opera 1903–4. Cond. f. Brit. stage p. of Parsifal, CG 1914. Then at NY Met from 1915 until his death, apart from brief break in 1928. Notorious for the cuts he made in Ring cycle. Had wide and catholic repertory. Cond. f. Amer. p. of Krenek's opera Jonny spielt auf (1929) and of Janáček's Glagolitic Mass.
From The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music in Oxford Reference.