Capital of the Hittite Empire set in a loop of the Halys River in central Turkey. Excavations by Hugo Winkler in 1906–12, Kirk Bittel during the 1930s, and subsequent campaigns by German teams show that the site was occupied since the Copper Age, becoming the main city of the Hittites, known then as Hattusas, about 1500 bc. At this time the city covered 180 ha and comprised two main elements. At Büyükkale was a walled inner town of 80 ha, the citadel. Here were large administrative buildings, one of which contained over 10 000 inscribed clay tablets, an audience hall, and temples. Upslope and to the south was a walled outer city of about 100 ha. Three of the gates here were decorated in reliefs showing warriors, lions, and sphinxes. Four temples are known inside, each set around a porticoed courtyard, together with secular buildings and residential structures. Outside the walls are cemeteries, most of which contain cremation burials, and the rock sanctuary of Yazilikaya. After the collapse of the Hittite Empire around 1200 bc the site was abandoned until the middle of the 1st millennium bc.
P. Neve, 1996, Housing in Hattuša, the capital of the Hittite Kingdom. In Y. Sey, Housing and settlement in Anatolia: a historical perspective. Istanbul: History Foundation Publications, 99–115