The use of bone or bone substitute material to replace diseased or missing bone. Bone graft materials include bone originating from within the body of the patient (autogenous bone), allografts, xenografts (see graft), and inert foreign bodies used for transplantation into bone (alloplasts). Allografts do not contain live bone cells, unlike autogenous bone, but do contain proteins which encourage new bone formation. The donor sites for alveolar bone augmentation are the iliac crest of the hip (which affords large bone volumes), and the chin, mandibular ramus, and maxillary tuberosity, which afford more limited availability of volume but avoid external scarring.
Subjects: Dentistry — Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.