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1 A cash offer for a controlling interest in a company. This is followed by an offer to acquire the rest of the company's shares at a lower price. The purpose is twofold: to establish control of the company and to reduce the cost of the purchase. Multiple price offers are not permitted in the UK, but they are in other countries, notably Germany and the USA.

2 A company that is started up with very little capital, the intention being that costs will be met out of operating revenues.

3 A technique enabling a computer to load a program of instructions. Before computer hardware can function, a program must be loaded into it. However, as a program is needed in the computer to enable it to load a program, preliminary instructions are stored permanently in the computer making it possible for longer programs to be accepted.

4 In statistics, a technique in which parameter estimates and their confidence intervals are calculated by creating new samples by draws with replacement from existing samples.

Subjects: Financial Institutions and Services.

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