One of great orchs. of world, founded at Boston, Mass., 1881 by Henry Lee Higginson who endowed it with a million dollars. First concert 22 Oct. 1881, cond. by Sir George Henschel who was cond. 1881–4. He was succeeded by Wilhelm Gericke 1884–9; Nikisch 1889–93; Emil Paur 1893–8; Gericke 1898–1906; Karl Muck 1906–8; Max Fiedler 1908–12; Muck 1912–18; Henri Rabaud 1918–19; Pierre Monteux 1919–24; Serge Koussevitzky 1924–49; Charles Munch 1949–62; Erich Leinsdorf 1962–9; William Steinberg 1969–72; Seiji Ozawa 1973–2004; James Levine from 2004. Salzburg Fest. début 1979. Koussevitzky's 25‐year tenure was outstanding for its encouragement of new works both by Amer. composers and by est. composers such as Prokofiev, Stravinsky, and Bartók. See Tanglewood.