Overview

Bradford Hill criteria


'Bradford Hill criteria' can also refer to...

 

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Dentistry

GO

Show Summary Details

Quick Reference

[A. B. Hill (1897–1991), British medical statistician] A set of nine criteria used to determine the strength of an association between a disease and its supposed causative agent. They form the basis of modern medical and dental epidemiological research.

The nine Bradford Hill criteria

Criterion

Explanation

Strength of association

The stronger the association, the more likely it is that the relation is causal.

Temporal relationship

Exposure always precedes the outcome.

Consistency

The association is consistent when results are replicated with different people under different circumstances and with different measurement instruments.

Theoretical plausibility

It is easier to accept an association as causal when there is a rational and theoretical basis for such a conclusion.

Coherence

The association should be compatible with existing theory, hypotheses, and knowledge.

Specificity

In the ideal situation, the effect has only one cause.

Dose response relationship

An increasing amount of exposure increases the risk.

Experimental evidence

Any related research that is based on experiments will make a causal inference more plausible.

Analogy

Sometimes a commonly accepted phenomenon in one area can be applied to another area.

Subjects: Dentistry.


Reference entries

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content.