A knee injury characterized by tenderness on the medial (inner) side of the knee. It is often caused by the hydrodynamic forces produced by swimmers using a breaststroke action. In the propulsive phase, the knee extends and rotates medially, while the foot is pronated. Hydrodynamic forces tend to abduct the leg at the knee. The tender spot often coincides with the adductor tubercle (an attachment point of the adductors on the femur) and the associated medial collateral ligament. It is likely that swimmers who perform whip-kicks are more prone to the condition because of extensive abduction-adduction at the hip. Strong contraction of the stabilizers, the quadriceps, and hamstrings, may limit abduction and adduction of the lower leg and reduce the risk of this injury.
Subjects: Sports and Exercise Medicine.