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The Celtic inhabitants of northern Britain between the Humber and the Tyne, known as the ‘mountain folk’. After the Roman invasion in 43 ad, Emperor Claudius formed an alliance with their queen Cartimandua. Roman troops helped suppress at least three revolts against her; she also handed over the refugee Caratacus. During the Roman civil wars (68–69) she was expelled by her anti-Roman husband, Venutius. Petillius Cerialis was made governor (legatus) of Britain by Vespasian; he advanced north c. 71–74 ad, and established Eboracum (York) as a permanent legionary fortress for the Ninth Legion in this former tribal territory.

Subjects: History — Archaeology.

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