British botanist, born in Scotland. After serving as an army medical officer he met botanist Joseph Banks (1743–1820) in 1798. Three years later Banks recommended him as naturalist on a survey of the Australian coast, during which he collected 4000 plant specimens; it took him five years to classify them. During this work he was the first to distinguish between gymnosperms and angiosperms. In 1827 he discovered Brownian movement.
Subjects: Ecology and Conservation — Plant Sciences and Forestry.