brown coal

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brown coal

brown coal

Development of bacterial community during spontaneous succession on spoil heaps after brown coal mining

BROWN, John (died 1928), JP; landed proprietor; Member of Kincardineshire County Council; Chairman of the Aberdeen Coal and Shipping Co. Ltd

McLaren, Henry Duncan (1879 - 1953), John Brown Ltd, Tredegar Iron and Coal Co. Ltd, Yorkshire Amalgamated Collieries, Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Co. Ltd, English Clays Lovering Pochin & Co.; a director: National Provincial Bank; London Assurance

EVANS, Thomas (died 1943), JP; Director of Burnyeat, Brown and Co. Ltd, and United National Collieries, Ltd; Director, Ocean Coal Co. Ltd; Director Deep Navigation Collieries, Ltd, etc

M’Laren, Charles Benjamin Bright (1850 - 1934), PC 1908; KC; actively interested in steel, shipbuilding, and colliery undertakings; Chairman of Metropolitan Railway Company, Tredegar Iron and Coal Company, John Brown and Company, and Sheepbridge Coal and Iron Company, and director other colliery companies in the Midlands; owner of considerable estates in Denbighshire, Flintshire, and Carnarvonshire, including the seaside watering-place of Prestatyn

WILTSHIRE, Aubrey Roy Liddon (1891 - 1969), Director: Birmid Auto Castings Pty Ltd; Australian Steamships Pty Ltd; Caledonian Collieries Ltd; Cessnock Collieries Ltd; Coal & Allied Industries Ltd; Howard Smith Ltd; Howard Smith Industries Ltd; Australian Sugar Co. Pty Ltd; J. & A. Brown & Abermain Seaham Collieries Ltd; Melbourne Steamship Co. Ltd; Lamson Paragon Ltd

It Is Union and Liberty: Alabama Coal Miners and the UMW. Ed. by Edwin L. Brown and Colin J. Davis. (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999. xii, 184 pp. Cloth, $39.95, ISBN 0-8173-0999-3. Paper, $19.95, ISBN 08173-1000-2.)


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Brown to brownish-black fossil fuel of low rank, intermediate between peat and lignite. It is soft, with a dull lustre and earthy texture, and contains the remains of plants; has a high moisture content (45–66%), and decomposes and darkens on dehydration. Its ash content is 1–5%, and its calorific value varies from low in soft, high-moisture types to high in those resembling lignites. It comes mainly from east and central Europe, where it is mined from open-cast pits.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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