(1874–1922), leading republican in the Anglo-Irish War. After a long involvement in the Gaelic League and the Gaelic Athletic Association, he joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913. He was crippled in the rising of 1916, but subsequently became chief of staff of the Volunteers. He presided over the first meeting of Dáil Éireann and became its first minister for defence. As such he proposed that Volunteers take an oath of allegiance to the Dáil in August 1919. He was one of the most militant opponents of the treaty and was killed at the start of the Irish Civil War.
From The Oxford Companion to Irish History in Oxford Reference.
Subjects: European History.