German statesman. As leader of the Weimar Republic's Catholic Centre Party, he was Chancellor and Foreign Minister, 1930–32. He attempted to solve Germany's economic problems by unpopular deflationary measures, such as higher taxation, cuts in government expenditure, and by trying to reduce reparation payments. But after the elections of 1930 he lost support in the Reichstag and ruled by emergency decrees. He was forced to resign in 1932 by President Hindenburg, whose confidence he had lost. He escaped the 1934 purge and emigrated to the USA.