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A north Indian monk and scholar who joined the monastic order at age 17 and thereafter concentrated on the study of meditation and monastic law (Vinaya). In 408 he relocated to China at the invitation of the clergy there, where he set to work as a translator. At first, he settled in the capital city Ch'ang-an.but because of disagreements with Kumārajīva, another renowned foreign translator, he left with some 40 disciples and went first to Lu-shan, where he worked closely with the scholar-monk Lu-shan Hui-yüan (344–416), and then to the southern capital Chien-k'ang (modern Nanking). Working at first in cooperation with Chinese monks, and later on his own, he produced thirteen works in approximately 125 fascicles. Among the most significant of these are the Nirvāṇa Sūtra and the Mahāsaṃghika-vinaya (both with Fa-hsien), and the Avataṃsaka Sūtra (or Hua-yen ching).

Subjects: Buddhism.

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