Also known as Buyyids. Dynasty of mercenary soldiers from the Caspian province of Daylam who controlled western Iran and Iraq from the mid-tenth to the mid-eleventh century, dominating the Abbasid Caliph until the arrival of the Seljuks. Established courts in Baghdad, Shiraz, and Isfahan; for most of the period the three power centers rivaled one another. Despite their Shii affiliation, for practical reasons the Buwayhids maintained the Abbasid Caliph in power, ruling in his name and exacting titles from him. Pioneered use of revenue grants (iqta) to pay soldiers, establishing a pattern of military dominance of the civilian administration later brought to completion by the Seljuks.