In relation to the wind. To sail a vessel by the wind is to sail square-riggers to windward with the yards fully braced, or, in fore-and-aft-rigged vessels, with the sheets hardened in. To sail a vessel full and by is to sail her to windward with the sails eased and full of wind. When sailing by the lee the wind has been brought, when sailing downwind, to come across the stern and bear on the wrong side of the fore-and-aft sails. This may cause one or more sails to swing dangerously across the ship and may cause her to broach.
Subjects: Maritime History.