bystander effect

'bystander effect' can also refer to...

Bystander Effect

Bystander Effect

bystander effect

bystander effect n.

bystander effect n.

Modelling radiation-induced bystander effect and cellular communication

Radiation-induced bystander effect in non-irradiated glioblastoma spheroid cells

Cytosine Deaminase/5-Fluorocytosine-Based Vaccination Against Liver Tumors: Evidence of Distant Bystander Effect

Re: Cytosine Deaminase/5-Fluorocytosine-Based Vaccination Against Liver Tumors: Evidence of Distant Bystander Effect

Characterisation of a Bystander Effect Induced in Human Tissue Explant Cultures by Low LET Radiation

Genotoxic Damage in Non-irradiated Cells: Contribution from the Bystander Effect

A review of the bystander effect and its implications for low-dose exposure


The bystander effect in optically trapped red blood cells due to Plasmodium falciparum infection

P04.67 Assessments for prediction of bystander effect in HSV-tk/GCV gene therapy

Role of epigenetic effectors in maintenance of the long-term persistent bystander effect in spleen in vivo

Lack of hyper-radiosensitivity and induced radioresistance and of bystander effect in V79 cells after proton irradiation of different energies

Healthy Crops or Healthy People? Balancing the Needs for Pest Control Against the Effect of Pesticides on Bystanders Secretary of State for Environment Food and Rural Affairs v Georgina Downs (Court of Appeal (Civil Division)) [2009] EWCA Civ 664

Gamma ray-induced bystander effect in tumour glioblastoma cells: a specific study on cell survival, cytokine release and cytokine receptors


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The reluctance of bystanders to intervene in an emergency, especially when a person appears to be in distress or when a crime is being committed. Scores of experiments have shown that people are much less likely to intervene in an emergency, and are generally slower to respond, when other people are present than when they are alone, and this phenomenon is sometimes called group inhibition of helping. It was discovered by the US psychologists Bibb Latané (born 1937) and John M(cConnon) Darley (born 1938), who reported an experiment in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology in 1968 in which people found themselves either alone or in a group in a waiting-room when smoke started billowing through a vent in the wall, quickly filling the room and making breathing difficult. Of the people who were alone when the smoke appeared, 55 per cent reported the fire within 2 minutes of first noticing it, and 75 per cent reported it within 6 minutes; but when groups of three were tested together, in only 12 per cent of cases did any of the three report the fire within 2 minutes, and in only 38 per cent of cases within 6 minutes. Also called the bystander apathy effect. See also diffusion of responsibility.

Subjects: Psychology.

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