A four-item questionnaire constructed in 1970 by the Scottish-born US psychiatrist John A. Ewing (1923–2006) and the US epidemiologist Beatrice A. Rouse as a quick screening device for alcohol dependence: (1) Have you ever felt you should Cut down on your drinking? (2) Have people Annoyed you by criticizing your drinking? (3) Have you ever felt Guilty about your drinking? (4) Have you ever used a drink as an Eye-opener first thing in the morning?