Widely distributed calcium-regulated kinases (CaMKs). CaMK1 (EC 220.127.116.11, 370 aa) phosphorylates synapsins, CREB, and CFTR and is involved in cellular processes such as transcriptional regulation, hormone production, translational regulation, regulation of actin filament organization, and neurite outgrowth. It is involved in calcium-dependent activation of the ERK pathway. CaMK II (EC 18.104.22.168) is composed of four different chains, α, β, γ, and δ (all ~500 aa), which assemble into homo- or heteromultimeric holoenzymes composed of eight to twelve subunits. It has been implicated in various neuronal functions, including synaptic plasticity and is highly concentrated in the postsynaptic region. Other CaM kinases with restricted tissue distribution are also known. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1 (CaMKK1, EC 22.214.171.124, 505 aa) phosphorylates CaM kinases and is part of a proposed calcium-triggered signalling cascade.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.