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Cambridge Rules


'Cambridge Rules' can also refer to...

Cambridge Rules

Stefan Winter. The Shiites of Lebanon under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1788. (Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization.) New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010. Pp. xii, 204. $95.00

Theory and Progress in Social Science. By James B. Rule. Cambridge University Press, 1997. 257 pp. Cloth, $54.95

Chad Bryant. Prague in Black: Nazi Rule and Czech Nationalism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 2007. Pp. xii, 378. $49.95

God vs. the Gavel: Religion and the Rule of Law. By Marci A. Hamilton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. xii+414 pp. np.

Minority Rights, Majority Rule: Partisanship and the Development of Congress. By Sarah A. Binder. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. xiv, 236 pp. Cloth, $59.95, ISBN 0-521-58239-3. Paper, $18.95, ISBN 0-521-58792-1.)

Nathan J. Brown. The Rule of Law in the Arab World: Courts in Egypt and the Gulf. (Cambridge Middle East Studies, number 6.) New York: Cambridge University Press. 1997. Pp. xvii, 258. $59.95

Elizabeth Kolsky. Colonial Justice in British India: White Violence and the Rule of Law. (Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society, number 17.) New York: Cambridge University Press. 2010. Pp. xi, 252. $95.00.

The Rules of Federalism: Institutions and Regulatory Politics in the EU and Beyond , by R. Daniel Kelemen. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004, 244 pp., $43.40 hardcover

Martin A. Klein. Slavery and Colonial Rule in French West Africa. (African Studies, number 94.) New York: Cambridge University Press. 1998. Pp. xxi, 354. Cloth $54.95, paper $19.95

Charles Kromkowski. Recreating the American Republic: Rules of Apportionment, Constitutional Change, and American Political Development, 1700–1870. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2002. Pp. xxxii, 451. $70.00

Karel C. Berkhoff. Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 2004. Pp. xiii, 463. $29.95

Joshua D. Zimmerman, editor. Jews in Italy under Fascist and Nazi Rule, 1922–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2005. Pp. xix, 374. $40.00.

Jonathan Scott. When the Waves Ruled Britannia: Geography and Political Identities, 1500–1800. New York: Cambridge University Press. 2011. Pp. xvii, 227. Cloth $90.00, paper $32.99

Fakhreddin Azimi. The Quest for Democracy in Iran: A Century of Struggle against Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 2008. Pp. xiv, 492. $35.00

Dieter Kuhn. The Age of Confucian Rule: The Song Transformation of China. (History of Imperial China.) Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 2009. Pp. 356. $35.00

Recreating the American Republic: Rules of Apportionment, Constitutional Change, and American Political Development, 1700–1870. By Charles A. Kromkowski. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002. xxxiv, 451 pp. $70.00, isbn 0-521-80848-0.)

Anthony J. Barker. Slavery and Antislavery in Mauritius, 1810–33: The Conflict between Economic Expansion and Humanitarian Reform under British Rule. (Cambridge Commonwealth Series.) New York: St. Martin's and MacMillan, London. 1996. Pp. viii, 225. $65.00

Michael G. Chang. A Court on Horseback: Imperial Touring and the Construction of Qing Rule, 1680–1785. (Harvard East Asian Monographs, number 287.) Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 2007. Pp. xxii, 550. $49.95

 

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The codification of the laws of the game of football (soccer), initially in 1848 and revised in the mid 1850s, and then articulated in the Cambridge University rules, drawn up by a committee of Trinity College football enthusiasts convened in October 1863, and published the following month. In these rules, harmony was sought and compromise reached between different conventions of play that had characterized the football codes of the different public schools that the players at the university had attended, such as Eton, Harrow, Westminster, Marlborough, Shrewsbury, and Rugby. Undergraduates had played a version of football in a Cambridge University team since the early 1840s, playing matches on Parker's Piece in the south of the city, and as the game grew more popular, standardization was required so that players from different traditions and colleges could accept a single set of laws. The 1863 rules became the basis of the modern game (rather than the Sheffield Rules that had been developed in the industrial football culture of Sheffield, in Yorkshire). They were developed coterminously with the foundation of the FA (Football Association) at a meeting in London at the end of October 1863, where all the representatives of clubs ‘were strongly in favour of Eton-Harrow-Cambridge principles; that is of the “dribbling game”’, Percy M. Young writes (A History of British Football, 1968). Although these club representatives did not negotiate adequately with the football-playing public schools and with Cambridge, and took no account of the provincial model in Sheffield, it was the Cambridge model and its maturation into the Association code that was to prevail and confirm the framework for what became recognizably the sport of modern football (soccer).

Subjects: Sport and Leisure.


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